开颅手术机器人颅骨磨削精准实时规划方法
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天津理工大学 机械工程学院

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TP242.6

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国家重点研发计划(2022YFE0112500);


Accurate Real-time Planning Method for Craniotomy Robot Skull Grinding
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School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology

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    摘要:

    为解决开颅手术颅骨磨削中耗时耗力,手术质量依赖术者经验的问题,提出了一种手术机器人颅骨磨削方法。结合光学导航仪实现颅骨磨削区域的精细实时重建,建立混合层次包围盒对重建模型进行空间约束,明确磨削区域的同时保障手术安全。在包围盒空间内建立三维全覆盖路径规划算法生成磨削轨迹。结合导航仪刚体工具,实现机械臂坐标系和颅骨坐标配准,引导机械臂到达手术入路点,通过机械臂TCP原点与导航仪光学定位标记点重合建立空间关系,完成机械臂与导航仪的空间配准,最终生成机械臂空间中的磨削轨迹。使用颅骨模型对该方法进行实验验证,研究结果表明该方法能实现智能、高效、稳定的颅骨磨削过程。

    Abstract:

    To address the issues of time-consuming and labor-intensive skull grinding during craniotomy surgeries, as well as the dependency of surgical quality on the operator's experience, a surgical robotic skull grinding method was proposed. This method was integrated with an optical navigation system to achieve precise real-time reconstruction of the skull grinding area. A hybrid hierarchical bounding box was established to spatially constrain the reconstructed model, clarifying the grinding area while ensuring surgical safety. Within the bounding box space, a three-dimensional full-coverage path planning algorithm was developed to generate the grinding trajectory. By combining the rigid body tool of the navigation system, the registration of the robotic arm's coordinate system and the skull coordinates was achieved, guiding the robotic arm to the surgical entry point. The spatial relationship was established by aligning the TCP origin of the robotic arm with the optical positioning marker point of the navigation system, completing the spatial registration between the robotic arm and the navigation system. Finally, the grinding trajectory in the robotic arm's workspace was generated. Experimental validation using a skull model demonstrated that the method was able to achieve an intelligent, efficient, and stable skull grinding process.

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王子俊,刘振忠. 开颅手术机器人颅骨磨削精准实时规划方法[J]. 科学技术与工程, , ():

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  • 收稿日期:2024-05-13
  • 最后修改日期:2024-05-27
  • 录用日期:2024-05-28
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