1.College of Agriculture, Guizhou University;2.Environment and Resources Institute, Guizhou University
茶树长期宿根连作使得茶园土壤酸化严重、养分失衡，导致茶叶产量和品质下降，制约我国茶产业的可持续发展。对贵州省茶叶主产区17个乡镇21个茶园土壤剖面及相邻林地进行调查取样，分析茶园土壤剖面酸度和养分特征。结果表明：茶园土壤0~20、20~40、40~60 cm三个土层土壤平均pH值为4.28、4.44、4.63，土壤酸化明显，呈现出强酸性至极强酸性的特征；其中，0~20 cm土层土壤酸化最为严重，其土壤pH值＜4.5的样品比例高达71.4%，比相邻林地高出23.8%。茶园土壤养分自表层向下逐步降低；与林地比较，表层茶园土壤有机质下降，而全氮、碱解氮明显增加；当pH值＜4.5后，除有效铁外，表层土壤其他养分均易流失。与林地比较，茶园土壤交换性酸、交换性铝、交换性氢含量增加，在0~20 cm土层中含量较高，分别达10.25、9.44和0.81 cmol·kg-1；而阳离子交换量和交换性钙、镁含量则呈下降趋势。相关性分析表明，茶园土壤pH值与全氮、碱解氮、有效磷、有效铁、交换性酸和交换性铝存在显著或极显著的负相关关系，而与盐基饱和度、交换性钙镁离子含量存在极显著正相关关系；当pH值低于5.2时，尤其是低于4.5后，土壤pH值主要受到交换性酸的影响；而高于5.2后，pH值主要受到盐基饱和度的影响，且主要取决于钙镁离子含量的高低。
Tea (Camellia sinensis) long-term lodging continuous crop makes the tea garden soil acidification serious, nutrient imbalance, leading to a decline in tea yield and quality, restricting the sustainable development of China's tea industry. In the primary tea-producing regions of Guizhou Province, the soil profiles and surrounding forest lands of 21 tea gardens in 17 townships were examined, sampled, and studied for their acidity and nutrient properties. The analysis revealed that the three soil layers in a tea garden had average pH values of 4.28, 4.44, and 4.63 respectively. The soil acidification was evident, with characteristics ranging from highly acidic to strong acidity. The greatest extent of acidification was seen in the 0–20 cm soil layer, where 71.4% of samples had pH levels below 4.5, which was 23.8% higher than those of the nearby nutrients in the soil of tea gardens. In tea gardens, soil nutrients gradually deplete as one descends. Compared with the forest land, the organic matter of the surface tea garden soil decreased, while the total nitrogen and alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen increased significantly. Other soil nutrients, in addition to the available iron, are easily lost in the topsoil when the pH value is below 4.5. While the amount of cation exchange and the amount of exchanged calcium and magnesium were declining, the content of exchange acid, aluminum, and hydrogen in tea garden soil increased when compared to forest land. The content was highest in the 0–20 cm soil layer, at 10.25, 9.44, and 0.81 cmol·kg-1, respectively. The results of a correlation analysis revealed a considerable or very significant inverse relationship between soil pH and available total nitrogen. The results of correlation analysis demonstrated a significant or very significant negative correlation between soil pH and total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, available iron, exchange acid, and exchange aluminum, along with a very significant positive correlation with salt saturation and exchange calcium and magnesium ion content. When the pH value was lower than 5.2, particularly if it had dropped lower than 4.5, the exchange acid had the primary influence on the soil pH value, but the pH value was mainly affected by the salt base saturation, especially when it rose beyond 5.2, and was major influenced by the concentration of calcium and magnesium ions.
谢珊,陈祖拥,舒英格,等. 贵州典型茶园土壤酸化及其养分变化特征[J]. 科学技术与工程, , ():复制