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李玲玲,韩瑞玲,张晓燕. 城市低空空域可用空间识别与容量评估——以北京市为例[J]. 科学技术与工程, 2021, 21(19): 8253-8261.
Li Lingling,Han Ruiling,Zhang Xiaoyan.Identification and Capacity Evaluation of Available Space in Urban Low-altitude Airspace --A Case Study of Beijing[J].Science Technology and Engineering,2021,21(19):8253-8261.
城市低空空域可用空间识别与容量评估——以北京市为例
Identification and Capacity Evaluation of Available Space in Urban Low-altitude Airspace --A Case Study of Beijing
投稿时间:2020-12-04  修订日期:2021-04-19
DOI:
中文关键词:  低空空域  可用空间  容量评估  北京市
英文关键词:low-altitude airspace  available space  capacity evaluation  Beijing
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(42071266);第三批河北省青年拔尖人才项目;中国博士后科学基金(2018M631757)
        
作者单位
李玲玲 河北师范大学资源与环境科学学院
韩瑞玲 河北师范大学资源与环境科学学院
河北师范大学旅游系
张晓燕 河北师范大学旅游系
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中文摘要:
      低空空域是国家重要的战略性资源,我国低空空域逐步放开加速了通用航空产业的发展,也激发了对低空空域容量评估的高度关注。本文首先对城市低空空域容量评估的关键问题进行了梳理,分别从可用空间识别、结构特征、无人机碰撞风险3个角度进行城市低空空域容量判定的约束分析;接着以无人机为主要对象,综合使用地理围栏技术与冲突检测与解决(CD&R)模型对北京市主城区低空空域容量进行了模拟。评估结果表明:①地理围栏技术具有城市低空空域容量评估的有效性,禁止飞出(Keep-in)和禁止飞入(Keep-out)两种地理围栏模拟结果在飞行高度h≤40 m时,空域可用空间比例随着飞行高度增加持续增加;h≥40 m时,空域可用空间比例随着飞行高度增长幅度明显减小。②北京市低空空域可用空间总量受到低空障碍物间隔标准与飞行高度的共同影响,随飞行高度增加而增加。城市低空空域可用空间沿城市交通干线分布,由中心向外围呈现圈层式分布,且主城区东南区和西北部的低空空域可用空间最大。③城市低空空域容量评估反映出空域更具有空间连续性表征,但需要借助地理要素的非均衡性充分反映。可见通过引入地理学的方法与技术,不仅增加了低空空域容量评估的精度与广度,也拓展了地理学研究空间从传统的陆域研究向空域延伸,对有效统筹地理条件与空域开发的资源价值、揭示空域形态特征,以及改善宏观的低空空域资源利用与管理具有重要意义。
英文摘要:
      Low-altitude airspace is an important strategic resource in China. The development of general aviation industry is being accelerating by the gradual opening of low-altitude airspace in China. It’s contributed a high attention to the capacity evaluation of low-altitude airspace. Firstly, the key problems of urban low-altitude airspace capacity assessment were combed in this paper. Constraint analysis of urban low-altitude airspace capacity determination were carried out from three perspectives of available space identification, structural characteristics and UAV collision risk. Then, taked UAV as the main object, the capacity of low-altitude airspace in the main urban area of Beijing was simulated by using geofence technology and conflict detection and resolution(CD&R) model. The results show that: (1) the geofence technology is effective in evaluating urban low-altitude airspace capacity. When the flight height is less than 40 m, the proportion of available space in airspace continues to increase with the increase of flight height. When the flight altitude is greater than 40 m, the proportion of available space in airspace decreases obviously with the increase of flight altitude. (2) The total amount of available space is being increase with altitude and is affected by low-altitude obstacle separation standard and flight altitude in Beijing's low-altitude airspace. The available space of urban low-altitude airspace is distributed along the urban traffic trunk line. The largest available space is the southeast and northeast of urban low-altitude airspace. (3) The capacity evaluation of urban low-altitude airspace reflects that the airspace is more characterized by spatial continuity. However, it needs to be fully reflected by the non-equilibrium of geographical elements. By introducing the methods and technologies of geography, not only the accuracy and breadth of low altitude airspace capacity assessment are increased, but also the research space of geography is extended from traditional land-based research to airspace. It is of great significance to effectively coordinate the resource value of geographical conditions and airspace development, reveal the characteristics of airspace morphology, and improve the macro utilization and management of low-altitude airspace resources.
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